Yoga Sutra Chapter 3

Chapter 3: Progressing (Vibhuti Pada)

Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi.

.1 Concentration (dharana) is the process of holding or fixing the attention of mind

onto one object or place, and is the sixth of the eight rungs.

(deshah bandhah chittasya dharana)

� deshah = place, object, point, spot

� bandhah = binding to, holding, fixing, uniting

� chittasya = of the mind, consciousness

� dharana = concentration, focusing, directing attention

2 The repeated continuation, or uninterrupted stream of that one point of focus is

called absorption in meditation (dhyana), and is the seventh of the eight steps.

(tatra pratyaya ekatanata dhyanam)

� tatra = there, therein (in that place or desha of 3.1)

� pratyaya = the cause, the feeling, causal or cognitive principle, notion, content

of mind, presented idea, cognition

� ekatanata = one continuous flow of uninterrupted attention (eka = one; tanata

= continued directedness)

� dhyanam = meditation

3 When only the essence of that object, place, or point shines forth in the mind, as if

devoid even of its own form, that state of deep absorption is called deep concentration

or samadhi, which is the eighth rung.

(tad eva artha matra nirbhasam svarupa shunyam iva samadhih)

� tad = that

� eva = the same

� artha = object, place, point

� matra = only, alone

� nirbhasam = shines forth, appears

� svarupa = own form, own nature (sva = own; rupe = form, nature)

� shunyam = devoid of, empty

� iva = as if, as it were

� samadhih = meditation in its higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the

state of perfected concentration

Sayama is the finer tool

4 The three processes of dharana, dhyana, and samadhi, when taken together on

the same object, place or point is called samyama.

(trayam ekatra sayama)

� trayam = the three

� ekatra = together, as one

� sayama = Self Control, dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together

5 Through the mastery of that three-part process of samyama, the light of

knowledge, transcendental insight, or higher consciousness (prajna) dawns, illumines,

flashes, or is visible.

(tad jayat prajna lokah)

� tad = of that

� jayat = achievement, mastery

� prajna = light of knowledge, transcendental insight, higher consciousness

� lokah = flashes, illumines, becomes visible, dawns

6 That three-part process of samyama is gradually applied to the finer planes,

states, or stages of practice.

(tasya bhumisu viniyogah)

� tasya = its, of that

� bhumisu = to the planes, states, stages

� viniyogah = application, practice

Internal is seen to be external

7 These three practices of concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana), and

samadhi are more intimate or internal than the previous five practices.

(trayam antar angam purvebhyah)

� trayam = these three

� antar = more internal, inner, intimate

� angam = rungs, limbs, accessories, components, steps, parts, members,

constituents (2.28)

� purvebhyah = preceding, previous

8 However, these three practices are external, and not intimate compared to nirbija

samadhi, which is samadhi that has no object, nor even a seed object on which there

is concentration.

(tad api bahir angam nirbijasya)

� tad = these, they

� api = even, also, compared to

� bahir = outer, external

� angam = rungs, limbs, accessories, components, steps, parts, members,

constituents

� nirbijasya = seedless samadhi, having no seed (nir = without; bijah = seed)

Witnessing subtle transitions with Samyama

9 That high level of mastery called nirodhah-parinamah occurs in the moment of

transition when there is a convergence of the rising tendency of deep impressions, the

subsiding tendency, and the attention of the mind field itself.

(vyutthana nirodhah samskara abhibhava pradurbhavau nirodhah ksana chitta

anvayah nirodhah-parinamah)

� vyutthana = emergence, coming out, rising

� nirodhah = mastery, coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of

� samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits

� abhibhava = disappearance, subsiding

� pradurbhavau = manifesting, appearance

� nirodhah = mastery, coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of

� ksana = with the moment, instant, infinitesimal time (3.53)

� chitta = of the consciousness of the mind-field

� anvayah = connection with, conjunction

� nirodhah-parinamah = transition to nirodhah (nirodhah = mastery,

coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of (1.2); parinamah = transition,

transformation, of change, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration)

10 The steady flow of this state (nirodhah-parinamah) continues by the creation of

deep impressions (samskaras) from doing the practice.

(tasya prashanta vahita samskarat)

� tasya = its (referring to the mind in the state of nirodhah-parinamah, in the

last sutra)

� prashanta = undisturbed, steady, continuous, peaceful, calm, tranquil

� vahita = flow

� samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits

11 The mastery called samadhi-parinamah is the transition whereby the tendency to

all-pointedness subsides, while the tendency to one-pointedness arises.

(sarvarathata ekagrata ksaya udaya chittasya samadhi-parinamah)

� sarvarathata = many pointedness, all pointedness, experiencing all points

� ekagrata = one-pointedness

� ksaya = dwindling, destruction, decay

� udaya = rising, uprising

� chittasya = of the consciousness of the mind-field

� samadhi-parinamah = transition to samadhi (samadhi = meditation in its

higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the state of perfected

concentration; parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result,

consequence, mutative effect, alteration)

12 The mastery called ekagrata-parinamah is the transition whereby the same onepointedness

arises and subsides sequentially.

(tatah punah shanta-uditau tulya-pratyayau chittasya ekagrata-parinimah)

� tatah = then

� punah = again, sequentially

� shanta-uditau = the subsiding and arising, past and present

� tulya-pratyayau = having similar

� chittasya = of the consciousness of the mind-field

� ekagrata-parinimah = transition of one-pointedness (ekagrata = onepointedness;

parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result,

consequence, mutative effect, alteration)

13 These three transition processes also explain the three transformations of form,

time, and characteristics, and how these relate to the material elements and senses.

(etena bhuta indriyasau dharma laksana avastha parinamah vyakhyatah)

� etena = by this, by these

� bhuta = elements

� indriyasau = mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas)

� dharma = form, quality

� laksana = time characteristics

� avastha = state of old or new, condition

� parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence,

mutative effect, alteration

� vyakhyatah = are described

14 There is an unmanifest, indescribable substratum or existence that is common or

contained within all of the other forms or qualities.

(shanta udita avyapadeshya dharma anupati dharmi)

� shanta = latent past

� udita = arising

� avyapadeshya = indescribable, unpredictable, unmanifest

� dharma = form, quality, characteristics

� anupati = closely following, common, conforming with all, contained in

� dharmi = the object containing the characteristics, substratum, existence

15 Change in the sequence of the characteristics is the cause for the different

appearances of results, consequences, or effects.

(krama anyatvam parinamah anyatve hetu)

� krama = sequence, succession, order

� anyatvam = distinctness, different phases

� parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence,

mutative effect, alteration, natural laws or functions of nature

� anyatve = for the distinctness, differentiation

� hetu = the reason

16 By samyama on the three-fold changes in form, time, and characteristics, there

comes knowledge of the past and future.

(parinimah traya samyama atita anagata jnana)

� parinimah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence,

mutative effect, alteration

� traya = three

� samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together

� atita = past

� anagata = future

� jnana = knowledge

Experiences from Sayama

17 The name associated with an object, the object itself implied by that name, and

the conceptual existence of the object, all three usually interpenetrate or commingle

with one another. By sayama on the distinction between these three, the meaning of

the sounds made by all beings becomes available.

(shabda artha pratyaya itaretara adhyasat samkara tat pravibhaga samyama sarva

bhuta ruta jnana)

� shabda = name of an object, word, sound

� artha = object implied, meaning

� pratyaya = idea, concept, conceptual existence

� itaretara = one another, of each with the others

� adhyasa = due to the convergence, coincidence, overlaying, interpenetrating,

superimposition, commingle

� samkara = confusion, appearing to be one, mixed together

� tat = these

� pravibhaga = distinctions, differentiations, separate

� samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

� sarva = all

� bhuta = of living being (beings that are in form, as bhuta = five elements)

� ruta = sounds produced, language, speech

� jnana = knowledge, meaning

18 Through the direct perception of the latent impressions (samskaras) comes the

knowledge of previous incarnations.

(samskara saksat karanat purva jati jnanam)

� samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits

� saksat = direct, immediate contact

� karanat = perception, experiencing

� purva = of previous

� jati = birth, incarnation

� jnana = knowledge

19 By samyama on the notions or presented ideas comes knowledge of another’s

mind.

(pratyayasya para chitta jnana)

� pratyayasya = notions, presented ideas, of the content of the mind,

conceptions

� para = other

� chitta = of the mental images, consciousness, of the consciousness of the

mind-field

� jnana = knowledge

20 But the underlying support of that knowledge (of the other persons mind, in

19) remains unperceived or out of reach.

(na cha tat salambana tasya avisayin bhutatvat)

[Note: This sutra is not included in all renditions]

� na = not

� cha = but

� tat = that

� salambana = with support

� tasya = its

� avisayin = unperceived, not within reach, not being the subject of, absent from

� bhutatvat = to be, beingness

21 When samyama is done on the form of one’s own physical body, the illumination

or visual characteristic of the body is suspended, and is thus invisible to other people.

(kaya rupa samyama tat grahya shakti tat stambhe chaksuh prakasha asamprayoga

antardhanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 20]

� kaya = body

� rupa = form

� samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

� tat = that

� grahya = can be perceived, capable of receiving

� shakti = power, capacity

� tat = that

� stambhe = to be checked, suspended

� chaksuh = of the eye

� prakasha = light, illumination, visual characteristic

� asamprayoga = there being no contact, disconnected, separated contact

� antardhanam = invisibility, disappearance

22 In the same way as described in relation to sight (3.21), one is able to suspend

the ability of the body to be heard, touched, tasted, or smelled.

(etena shabdadi antardhanam uktam)

[Note: This sutra is not included in all renditions]

� etena = by this

� shabdadi = sound and others

� antardhanam = disappearance, suspend, arrest

� uktam = is explained

23 Karma is of two kinds, either fast or slow to manifest; by samyama on these

karmas comes foreknowledge of the time of death.

(sopakramam nirupakramam cha karma tat samyama aparanta jnanam aristebhyah

va)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.21 or 3.22]

� sopakramam = fast to fructify, quick to manifest, immediate, active

� nirupakramam = slow to fructify, dormant, less ative

� cha = or

� karma = action, fruits of action

� tat = that

� samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

� aparanta = death

� jnana = knowledge

� aristebhyah = by portents, foreknowledge

� va = or

24 By samyama on friendliness (and the other attitudes of 1.33), there comes great

strength of that attitude.

(maitri dishu balani)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.22 or 3.23]

� maitri = friendliness (and others of 1.33)

� dishu = et cetera

� balani = power, strength

25 By samyama on the strength of elephants comes a similar strength.

(baleshu hasti baladini)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.23 or 3.24]

� baleshu = strength, power

� hasti = elephants

� baladini = power

26 By directing the flash of inner light of higher sensory activity, knowledge of

subtle objects, those hidden from view, and those very distant can be attained.

(pravrittyah aloka nyasat suksma vyavahita viprakrista jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.24 or 3.25]

� pravrittyah = higher sensory activity, the inner light

� aloka = light, flashes, illumines, becomes visible, dawns (3.5)

� nyasat = by directing, focusing, projecting (through samyama)

� suksma = subtle

� vyavahita = hidden, concealed, veiled

� viprakrista = distant, remote

� jnana = knowledge

27 By samyama on the inner sun, knowledge of the many subtle realms can be

known.

(bhuvana jnanam surya samyamat)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.25 or 3.26]

� bhuvana = realms, universe, regions, subtle worlds

� jnana = knowledge

� surya = inner sun

� samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

28 By samyama on the moon, knowledge of the arrangement of the inner stars can

be known.

(chandra tara vyuha jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.26 or 3.27]

� chandra = on the moon, lunar

� tara = of the stars

� vyuha = of the system, arrangement

� jnana = knowledge

29 By samyama on the pole-star, knowledge of the movement of those stars can be

known.

dhurve tad gati jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.27 or 3.28]

� dhurve = on the pole-star

� tad = their

� gati = movement

� jnana = knowledge

30 By samyama on the navel center, knowledge of the arrangement of the systems

of the body can be known.

(nabhi chakra kaya vyuha jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.28 or 3.29]

� nabhi = of the navel

� chakra = energy center, wheel, plexus

� kaya = of the body

� vyuha = of the system, arrangement

� jnana = knowledge

31 By samyama on the pit of the throat, hunger and thirst leave.

(kantha kupe ksut pipasa nivrittih)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.29 or 3.30]

� kantha = of the throat

� kupe = in the pit of

� ksut = hunger

� pipasa = thirst

� nivrittih = leave, retreat, cease

32 By samyama on the tortoise channel, below the throat, steadiness is attained.

(kurma nadyam sthairyam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.30 or 3.31]

� kurma = tortoise

� nadyam = pit, tube duct, channel

� sthairyam = steadiness

33 By samyama on the coronal light of the head, visions of the siddhas, the masters

can come.

(murdha jyotisi siddha darshanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.31 or 3.32]

� murdha = crown of the head

� jyotisi = the bright effulgence, lucidity, luminosity, inner light, supreme or

divine light

� siddha = perfected ones, masters

� darshanam = vision

34 Or, through the intuitive light of higher knowledge, anything might become

known.

(pratibhad va sarvam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 32 or 33]

� pratibha = intuitive light or flash, light of higher knowledge, illumination

� va = or

� sarvam = all

35 By practicing samyama on the heart, knowledge of the mind is attained.

(hirdaye chitta samvit)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 33 or 34]

� hirdaye = heart

� chitta = of the consciousness of the mind-field

� samvit = knowledge

36 The having of experiences comes from a presented idea only when there is a

commingling of the subtlest aspect of mind (sattva) and pure consciousness

(purusha), which are really quite different. Samyama on the pure consciousness,

which is distinct from the subtlest aspect of mind, reveals knowledge of that pure

consciousness.

(sattva purusayoh atyanta asankirnayoh pratyaya avishesah bhogah pararthatvat

svartha samyamat purusha-jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.34 or 3.35]

� sattva = purity aspect of mind field or chitta, subtlest individuation

� purusayoh = purusha, pure consciousness

� atyanta = quite, extremely, totally, completely

� asankirnayoh = distinct, unmixed, not commingled

� pratyaya = presented idea, concept, conceptual existence

� avishesah = with no distinction, absence

� bhogah = experience

� pararthatvat = for the interest, existence, purpose of another

� svartha = for its own, self-interest

� samyamat = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi

taken together (3.4)

� purusha = a consciousness, Self

� jnana = knowledge

37 From the light of the higher knowledge of that pure consciousness or purusha

(3.36) arises higher, transcendental, or divine hearing, touch, vision, taste, and smell.

(tatah pratibha sravana vedana adarsha asvada varta jayanta)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.35 or 3.36]

� tatah = thence

� pratibha = intuitive light or flash, light of higher knowledge, illumination

� sravana = higher, transcendental, or divine hearing

� vedana = higher, transcendental, or divine touch

� adarsha = higher, transcendental, or divine vision

� asvada = higher, transcendental, or divine taste

� varta = higher, transcendental, or divine smell

� jayanta = proceed, arises, occur, produced

What to do with subtle experiences

38 These experiences resulting from samyama are obstacles to samadhi, but appear

to be attainments or powers to the outgoing or worldly mind.

(te samadhau upasargah vyutthane siddhayah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.36 or 3.37]

� te = these (attainments)

� samadhi = meditation in its higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the

state of perfected concentration

� upasrga = obstacles, hindrances, impediments

� vyutthana = to the outgoing mind, worldly mind

� siddhi = attainments, powers, perfections, subtle experiences, psychic abilities

More attainments from Sayama

39 By loosening or letting go of the causes of bondage and attachment, and by

following the knowledge of how to go forth into the passages of the mind, there comes

the ability to enter into another body.

(bandha karana shaithilyat prachara samvedanat cha chittasya para sharira aveshah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.37 or 3.38]

� bandha = bondage, attachment

� karana = cause

� shaithilyat = relaxation, letting go, loosening

� prachara = passages, means of going forth, moving through

� samvedanat = by knowledge of

� cha = and

� chittasya = of the consciousness of the mind-field

� para = another, other

� sharira = body

� aveshah = entering into

40 By the mastery over udana, the upward flowing prana vayu, there is a cessation

of contact with mud, water, thorns, and other such objects, and there ensues the

rising or levitation of the body.

(udana jayat jala panka kantaka adisu asangah utkrantih cha)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.38 or 3.39]

� udana = one of the five prana vayus (upward flow of prana in the body)

� jaya = by mastery

� jala = water

� panka = mud, as in a swamp

� kantaka = thorn

� adisu = and with others, et cetera

� asangah = no contact, no adhesion, cessation of contact

� utkrantih = rising, ascension, levitation

� cha = and

41 By mastery over samana, the prana flowing in the navel area, there comes

effulgence, radiance, or fire.

(samana jayat jvalanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.39 or 3.40]

� samana = one of the five prana vayus (prana in navel area)

� jaya = by mastery

� jvalana = effulgence, radiance, fire

42 By samyama over the relation between space and the power of hearing, the

higher, divine power of hearing comes.

(shrotra akashayoh sambandha samyamat divyam shrotram)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.40 or 3.41]

� shrotra = ear, the power of hearing

� akasha = space, ether

� sambandha = over the relation

� samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

� divyam = higher, divine

� shrotram = ear

43 By Samyama on the relationship between the body and space (akasha) and by

concentrating on the lightness of cotton, passage through space can be attained.

(kaya akashayoh sambandha samyamat laghu tula samatatti cha)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.41 or 3.42]

� kaya = body

� akasha = space, ether

� sambandha = relationship

� samyamat = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi

taken together (3.4)

� laghu = light

� tula = cotton fiber

� samatatti = attainment, become one with

� cha = and

44 When the formless thought patterns of mind are projected outside of the body, it

is called maha-videha, a great disincarnate one. By samyama on that outward

projection, the veil over the spiritual light is removed.

(bahih akalpita vrittih maha-videha tatah prakasha avarana ksayah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.42 or 3.43]

� bahih = external, outside, passing outward, projected outside

� akalpita = formless, outside, unimaginable, unidentified,

� vrittih = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various

forms of the mind-field

� maha-videha = great one existing without a body, disincarnate

� tatah = by that

� prakasha = spiritual light

� avarana = covering, veil

� ksayah = removed, destroyed

45 By samyama on the five forms of the elements (bhutas), which are gross form,

essence, subtleness, interconnectedness, and its purpose, then mastery over those

bhutas is attained.

(sthula svarupa suksma anvaya arthavattva samyamad bhuta-jayah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.43 or 3.44]

� sthula = gross

� svarupa = in its own nature, own form or essence; ( sva = own; rupa = form)

� suksma = subtle, astral

� anvaya = connectedness, conjunction, connection, interpenetration

� arthavattva = purposefulness

� samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

� bhuta = the elements (earth, water, fire, air, space)

� jayah = mastery

46 Through that mastery over the elements, comes the abilities of making the body

atomically small, perfect, and indestructible in its characteristics or components, as

well as bringing other such powers.

(tatah anima adi pradurbhavah kaya sampad tad dharma anabhighata cha)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.44 or 3.45]

� tatah = by that

� anima = making miniature, atomic size

� adi = and others (other such powers)

� pradurbhavah = manifestion of

� kaya = body

� sampad = perfection

� tad = their

� dharma = characteristics, components

� anabhighata = non-resistance, without obstruction, indestructible

� cha = and

47 This perfection of the body includes beauty, gracefulness, strength, and

adamantine hardness in taking the blows that come.

(rupa lavanya bala vajra samhanana kaya-sampat)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.45 or 3.46]

� rupa = form, beauty, appearance

� lavanya = gracefulness, charm, ability to attract

� bala = strength, energy

� vajra = adamantine, hardness

� samhanana = ability to bear strokes or hardness

� kaya-sampat = perfection of the body

48 By samyama on the process of perception and action, essence, I-ness,

connectedness, and purposefulness of senses and acts, mastery over those senses

and acts (indriyas) is attained.

(grahana svarupa asmita anvaya arthavattva samyamad indriya jayah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.46 or 3.47]

� grahana = process of perception and action

� svarupa = in its own nature, own form or essence; ( sva = own; rupa = form)

� asmita = I-ness, individuality

� anvaya = connectedness, conjunction, connection, interpenetration

� arthavattva = purposefulness

� samyamad = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi

taken together (3.4)

� indriya = mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas)

� jayah = mastery

49 By that mastery over the senses and acts (indriyas), there comes quickness of

mind, perception with the physical instruments of perception, and mastery over the

primal cause out of which manifestation arises.

(tatah mano-javitvam virarana-bhavah pradhaua jayah)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.47 or 3.48]

� tatah = by that

� manas = mind

� javitva = quickness, speed

� virarana-bhavah = perception with instrument of perception, i.e., with the body

or physical senses

� pradhaua = the primal cause out of which there is manifestation

� jayah = mastery

Renunciation that brings kaivalya or liberation

50 To one well established in the knowledge of the distinction between the purest

aspect of mind and consciousness itself, there comes supremacy over all forms or

states of existence, as well as over all forms of knowing.

(sattva purusha anyata khyati matrasya sarva-bhava adhisthatrittvam sarvajnatritvam

cha)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.48 or 3.49]

� sattva = purity aspect of mind field or chitta, subtlest individuation, purest

aspect of buddhi

� purusha = pure consciousness

� anyata = distinction between, difference

� khyati = through knowledge, vision, discernment, correct cognition, clarity,

awareness

� matrasya = only, merely

� sarva-bhava = over all states or forms of existence, omnipotence (sarva = all;

bhava = states or forms of existence)

� adhisthatrittvam = supremacy

� sarva-jnatritvam = all knowingness, omniscience (sarva = all; jnatritvam =

knowingness)

� cha = and

51 With non-attachment or desirelessness even for that supremacy over forms and

states of existence and the omniscience (3.50), the seeds at the root of those

bondages are destroyed, and absolute liberation is attained.

(tad vairagya api dosa bija ksaya kaivalyam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.49 or 3.50]

� tad = that

� vairagya = desirelessness, non-attachment, dispassion

� api = also, even

� dosa = impairment, bondage, defect, imperfection

� bija = seed

� ksaya = with the elimination, destruction

� kaivalyam = absolute liberation, independence, freedom

52 When invited by the celestial beings, no cause should be allowed to arise in the

mind that would allow either acceptance of the offer, or the smile of pride from

receiving the invitation, because to allow such thoughts to arise again might create

the possibility of repeating undesirable thoughts and actions.

(sthani upanimantrane sanga smaya akaranam punuh anista prasangat)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.50 or 3.51]

� sthani = celestial beings, those of high spiritual position, presiding deities,

devas

� upanimantrane = invitation, on being invited by

� sanga = association, coming together with, acceptance, attachment

� smaya = pride, smile of happiness

� akaranam = no cause, no reason for action, not entertain

� punuh = again, repeat, renew, revive

� anista = undesirable

� prasangat = possibility of being caught or having connection

Higher discrimination through Sayama

53 By samyama over the moments and their succession, there comes the higher

knowledge that is born from discrimination.

(ksana tat kramayoh samyamat viveka-jam jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.51 or 3.52]

� ksana = moment, instant, infinitesimal time (3.9)

� tat = its

� krama = sequence, succession

� samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken

together (3.4)

� viveka = discrimination, discernment

� ja = born of

� jnana = knowledge, gnosis

54 From that discriminative knowledge (3.53) comes awareness of the difference or

distinction between two similar objects, which are not normally distinguishable by

category, characteristics, or position in space.

(jati laksana desha anyata anavachchhedat tulyayoh tatah pratipattih)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.52 or 3.53]

� jati = genus, species, category, type

� laksana = time characteristics, appearance, distinctive mark

� desha = place, position in space

� anyata = distinction, separateness, difference

� anavachchhedat = undefined, not separated, indistinguishable

� tulyayoh = of two similar objects, the same category or class, equal

� tatah = thereby, from that

� pratipattih = knowledge distinction, distinguishable knowledge

55 That higher knowledge is intuitive and transcendent, and is born of

discrimination; it includes all objects within its field, all conditions related to those

objects, and is beyond any succession.

(tarakam sarva visayam sarvatha visayam akramam cha iti viveka jam jnanam)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.53 or 3.54]

� tarakam = transcendent, intuitional,

� sarva = all

� visayam = objects, conditions, pursuits

� sarvatha = in all ways, by all means

� visayam = objects, conditions, pursuits

� akramam = beyond succession, non-sequential

� cha = and

� iti = this

� viveka = discrimination, discernment

� ja = born

� jnana = knowledge, gnosis

56 With the attainment of equality between the purest aspect of sattvic buddhi and

the pure consciousness of purusha, there comes absolute liberation, and that is the

end.

(sattva purusayoh suddhi samye kaivalyam iti)

[Note: In some renditions this is sutra 3.54 or 3.55]

� sattva = purity aspect of mind field or chitta, subtlest individuation, purest

aspect of buddhi

� purusayoh = pure consciousness

� suddhi = purity

� samye = equality

� kaivalyam = absolute liberation, independence, freedom

� iti = this, end, finish